Hematuria, or blood in the urine, can be either gross (visible) or microscopic (blood cells only visible through a microscope). Gross hematuria can vary widely in appearance, from light pink to deep red with clots. Although the amount of blood in the urine may be different, the types of conditions that can cause the problem are the same, and require the same kind of workup or evaluation.
People with gross hematuria will visit their doctor with this as a primary complaint. People who have microscopic hematuria, on the other hand, will be unaware of a problem and their condition will most commonly be detected as part of a periodic checkup by a primary-care physician.
What are the causes of blood in urine? The causes of gross and microscopic hematuria are similar and may result from bleeding anywhere along the urinary tract. One cannot readily distinguish between blood originating in the kidneys, ureters (the tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder), bladder, or urethra. Any degree of blood in the urine should be fully evaluated by a physician, even if it resolves spontaneously.
What are the causes of blood in urine? Infection of the urine, (often called a urinary tract infection or UTI) stemming either from the kidneys or bladder, is a common cause of microscopic hematuria. Urine is naturally sterile and should not contain bacteria. Kidney and bladder stones can cause irritation and abrasion of the urinary tract, leading to microscopic or gross hematuria. Trauma affecting any of the components of the urinary tract or the prostate can lead to bloody urine. Hematuria can also be associated with renal (kidney) disease, as well as hematologic disorders involving the body’s clotting system. Medications that increase the risk of bleeding, such as aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin), or clopidogrel (Plavix), may also lead to bloody urine. Lastly, cancer anywhere along the urinary tract can present with hematuria.
How is blood in urine treated? Treatments for hematuria vary widely and depend on the reason for the bleeding. It is important to note that quite often no cause is found for the hematuria. This should not be a source of major concern, however, since an appropriate workup effectively rules out the most serious causes of hematuria (for example, cancer).
How is blood in urine treated? In cases where a workup is negative and the cause of the hematuria remains unknown, observation with repeat urinalyses is a reasonable option. A blood test to check kidney function and a blood-pressure check should be done as well. Caucasian men over 50 should discuss with their doctor an annual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test which is used to screen for prostate cancer. Prostate screening in African Americans traditionally begins at age 45 and in all races, a history of prostate cancer in close family members may indicate an earlier start of screening.